Struggle is a programming game in a Scheme-like language where two programs attempt to alter each other's code. Struggle was presented by Christian Queinnec in March 1990 at the EuroPAL conference in Cambridge.


  1. Queinnec, Christian. "Struggle, The First Denotational Game." EuroPAL 90: Proceedings of the First European Conference on the Practical Application of Lisp Cambridge (UK), 1990. 351–361.